Crisis Communication

Posts Tagged ‘crisis management

A few notes from the crisis media relations workshop I attended with Dr. Joseph V. Trahan, III, APR, Fellow:

The word crisis in Chinese means dangerous opportunity.

When planning or working through for a crisis, you should

  • Anticipate
  • Coordinate
  • Cooperate
  • Communicate

The three C’s of media relations

  • Control
  • Competence
  • Concern

When it comes to preparing for questions, know the 5x5x5. Be prepared with five points you want to push out, five bad things you expect to reply to and five ugly things you hope you won’t be asked. If you prepare the answers to at least 15 questions before an interview, you’ll be better prepared.

The two most important things for the interview are continuity and consistency of the message. Other important areas of crisis communication include:

  • Security-what can’t be released and why
  • Accuracy-tell what you need to know, just the facts, don’t speculate
  • Propriety-protect family identities, especially until the next of kin has been identified
  • Policy-only disagree with policy behind closed doors, never disagree on the record

Messages need to be:

  • Consistent—stick with one label for the situation
  • Short
  • Jargon-free
  • Clear
  • Honest
  • Simple
  • Includes key points and information

The Bhopal gas tragedy would be a nightmare of a case to handle. At the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India, toxic gases were released. More than 2,000 people died immediately. It is estimated that 8,000 died within the two weeks following in addition to the approximate 16,000 more who have died from disease related to the incident. It is said that the crisis was caused by an sabotage.

From a crisis communications standpoint, getting a good idea of the situation would have been difficult considering the distance between India and the US (Hendrix). Considering this, I think a decent job managing the crisis was done.

According to Hendrix, Union Carbide made some very important decisions early on. The company decided to accept responsibility using an attachment/forgiveness strategy and provide aid to victims. I think this strategy was very effective because it showed the public that they were not denying what had happened and gave people the feeling that Union Carbide would attempt to take care of the situation.

It also was decided to be available to and share information with the media. Union Carbide:

  • Held press conferences
  • Hosted press tours
  • Had key people available for interviews
  • Issued press releases

In the book Public Relations Cases by Hendrix, the fact sheet shown has a large amount of information and is organized effectively. Although the incident occurred more than 20 years ago, the same principles apply: short, concise writing.

Included in the fact sheet is information on the incident, the cause, who is taking responsibility, legalities, settlement information, relief efforts, medical assistance, medical effects, status of the plant in Bhopal and litigation.There also is environmental and safety information about the company’s safety record, safety and environmental goals and achievements and improvements made to training and procedures.

Union Carbide also had to keep its internal audiences informed, which was done through employee news bulletins, employee publications, video messages, newsletters, annual stockholder meetings and individual letters and phone calls.

Now, Union Carbide would have to worry about blogs, Twitter and more. From the standpoint of 20 years ago though, this case was handled probably the best it could have been considering the number of deaths and distance from the incident.

Source:

After Dominos employees made a video of them tampering with food, it was posted on YouTube. Before the video was removed, it had received almost one million views.

Although the employees claim none of the food they tampered with was served, the video and media coverage caused damage to the company. The president of the company posted a YouTube response:

In the video, he reassures customers and tells people exactly what is being done to make things better. There also is a very active Twitter account, linked to the YouTube page of the video, which was used to respond to customer’s concerns.

Due to social media, corporate responses need to be immediate. According to AdAge, it took the company about 48 hours to be fully responsive. The company’s first strategy seemed to be “wait and see,” with hopes it would blow over.

According to the Wall Street Journal, the president of Levick Strategic Communications, Richard Levick, “gives an F to Domino’s response for the first 24 hours, but an A for everything after.”

In AdAge, Levick suggested companies do several things to prepare for a crisis; (1) Identify who you need during a crisis, from PR to HR, (2) Be prepated for worst-case scenarios, (3) Own SEO keywords you may need in a crisis, (4) Be connected online, (5) Respond as soon as possible.

I’m not sure if it was a strategic move or not, but I’ve realized a lot of the negative coverage has been replaced with news releases and stories about Domino’s new pasta bowls. But, Time suggested they take a “commercial break” to let things cool down.

What I think

The biggest mistake Domino’s made was that they waited to respond. I also wonder if they had a crisis plan in place for a situation such as this. Food tampering is a common enough occurence, but it seems that many companies still have not grasped how much social media can affect a crisis situation.

I think the YouTube video response was a good idea. Many people still searched for the video and this was at the top of the results. Having the president of the company respond and tell exactly what the company was doing also was effective.

I agree with Todd Defren that having a social media presence before the crisis would have bought the company more credibility and time. Domino’s started a Twitter account after the video had been aired. Had a Twitter account already been set up, they probably would have been alerted to the video much more quickly and already had followers to respond to.

Domino’s has probably realized that they need to monitor the Web much more closely. It’s actually very simple. I have a Google Alert for my name that is delivered to my Reader daily.

Sources

According to Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer, organizations and companies “must be open to new insights, understanding, and skills while maintaining the knowledge, skill, and wisdom that have proved successful,” (p. 36).

Organizations that evolve with their changing environment will thrive. The organization will do something to try to fix a problem. If it works, then the organization learns. If it does not work, the organization alters its approach and then learns what does not work in addition to what does work.

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.

Communication and Organizational Crisis by Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer describes Chaos Theory as “loosely related principles regarding the behavior of complex and dynamic systems,” (p. 28).

According to CT, an organizations have a predictability with general trends and patterns. They also have sensitive dependence on initial conditions, meaning something very minor can impact an organization in a major way. The changes are described as bifurcation, “the flashpoint of disruption and change at which a system’s direction, character, and/or structure is fundamentally altered,” (p. 30). Any organization can have bifurcation occur at any time.

Following bifurcation is self-organization. Basically, order is attempted to be brought back to the organzation.

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.

When handling a crisis, it is important to classify what kind of crisis it is. This can help you determine your course of action and manage the crisis.

Here are several different systems of classification from p. 47 of Communication and Organizational Crisis by Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer :

Meyers & Holusha, 1986

  • Public perception
  • Sudden market shift
  • Product failure
  • Top management succession
  • Cash crises
  • Industrial relations
  • Hostile takeover
  • Adverse international events
  • Regulation/deregulation

Coombs, 1999

  • Natural disasters
  • Malevolence
  • Technical breakdowns
  • Human breakdowns
  • Challenges
  • Megadamage
  • Organizational misdeeds
  • Workplace violence
  • Rumors

Miroff & Anagnos, 2001

  • Economic
  • Informational
  • Physical – Loss of key plants and facilities
  • Human resource
  • Reputation
  • Psychopathic acts
  • Natural disasters

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.

The first theory I read about in Communication and Organizational Crisis by Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer was about sensemaking. According to the book, “This process is inherently retrospective as members look back on events and construct their meanings,” (p. 22). Essentially, people involved in organizations will try to reduce uncertainty through sharing their interpretations and ideas of what happened, why it happened and what they can do to solve the problem.

The book says, “Weick (1979) identified specific phases or stages to organizing, including enactment, selection, and retention.”

Enactment
This is the first action taken. For example, Facebook listened to the complaints of the users. The company had to at least recognize and respond to the complaints.

Selection
An organization goes to the next step, selection, in an effort to solve the problem. In crisis situations, “organizations are usually forced to offer explanations of cause, blame, and responsibility…that will cause the least legal and economical liability,” (p. 23).

Retention

Previously used methods that prove successful become part of the organization and are reused when another incident occurs.

Sensemaking can help organizations “see the cause of crisis, to avoid them, and to reduce their intensity,” (p. 28).

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.