Crisis Communication

Author Archive

A few notes from the crisis media relations workshop I attended with Dr. Joseph V. Trahan, III, APR, Fellow:

The word crisis in Chinese means dangerous opportunity.

When planning or working through for a crisis, you should

  • Anticipate
  • Coordinate
  • Cooperate
  • Communicate

The three C’s of media relations

  • Control
  • Competence
  • Concern

When it comes to preparing for questions, know the 5x5x5. Be prepared with five points you want to push out, five bad things you expect to reply to and five ugly things you hope you won’t be asked. If you prepare the answers to at least 15 questions before an interview, you’ll be better prepared.

The two most important things for the interview are continuity and consistency of the message. Other important areas of crisis communication include:

  • Security-what can’t be released and why
  • Accuracy-tell what you need to know, just the facts, don’t speculate
  • Propriety-protect family identities, especially until the next of kin has been identified
  • Policy-only disagree with policy behind closed doors, never disagree on the record

Messages need to be:

  • Consistent—stick with one label for the situation
  • Short
  • Jargon-free
  • Clear
  • Honest
  • Simple
  • Includes key points and information

The Bhopal gas tragedy would be a nightmare of a case to handle. At the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India, toxic gases were released. More than 2,000 people died immediately. It is estimated that 8,000 died within the two weeks following in addition to the approximate 16,000 more who have died from disease related to the incident. It is said that the crisis was caused by an sabotage.

From a crisis communications standpoint, getting a good idea of the situation would have been difficult considering the distance between India and the US (Hendrix). Considering this, I think a decent job managing the crisis was done.

According to Hendrix, Union Carbide made some very important decisions early on. The company decided to accept responsibility using an attachment/forgiveness strategy and provide aid to victims. I think this strategy was very effective because it showed the public that they were not denying what had happened and gave people the feeling that Union Carbide would attempt to take care of the situation.

It also was decided to be available to and share information with the media. Union Carbide:

  • Held press conferences
  • Hosted press tours
  • Had key people available for interviews
  • Issued press releases

In the book Public Relations Cases by Hendrix, the fact sheet shown has a large amount of information and is organized effectively. Although the incident occurred more than 20 years ago, the same principles apply: short, concise writing.

Included in the fact sheet is information on the incident, the cause, who is taking responsibility, legalities, settlement information, relief efforts, medical assistance, medical effects, status of the plant in Bhopal and litigation.There also is environmental and safety information about the company’s safety record, safety and environmental goals and achievements and improvements made to training and procedures.

Union Carbide also had to keep its internal audiences informed, which was done through employee news bulletins, employee publications, video messages, newsletters, annual stockholder meetings and individual letters and phone calls.

Now, Union Carbide would have to worry about blogs, Twitter and more. From the standpoint of 20 years ago though, this case was handled probably the best it could have been considering the number of deaths and distance from the incident.

Source:

Mexico warns no kissing as 81 dead in swine flu outbreak

To date, there have been about 81 deaths linked to the swine flu. It has made its way into the US, infecting several people including students in New York. Schools and universities in Mexico City have been closed and airlines are asking people to not travel to Mexico.

The World Health Organization needs to handle communication about this outbreak, but there also are many other smaller organizations that will need to be quick to communicate.

For example, hospitals need to communicate with people in the communities about what the symptoms are, but also not scare them into thinking they have the swine flu if it is something else.

Schools and universities also will need to have communication in place. What will they do if a student contracts the swine flu? What if a student dies? How will they let parents and the community know that they are handling the problem appropriately.

Doctor’s offices also need to have a plan in place. What if a person comes in feeling sick and they are diagnosed with the swine flu? How will they inform their other patients that they may have been infected?

I recall coming across a flu epidemic plan for CMU during an internet search for an interview I was doing for a class. Although it seemed a little morbid to have a plan on what they would do if many students died, I think their plan was well thought out. I imagine that CMU and other schools are probably reviewing these crisis plans in case there is a large-scale epidemic.

There was a swine flu scare in 1976 as well.

Even though a lot of crises are unexpected, it is important to be proactive. Read They Missed the Whole Story for an interesting take of a spider situation in Texas.

According to Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer, organizations and companies “must be open to new insights, understanding, and skills while maintaining the knowledge, skill, and wisdom that have proved successful,” (p. 36).

Organizations that evolve with their changing environment will thrive. The organization will do something to try to fix a problem. If it works, then the organization learns. If it does not work, the organization alters its approach and then learns what does not work in addition to what does work.

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.

Communication and Organizational Crisis by Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer describes Chaos Theory as “loosely related principles regarding the behavior of complex and dynamic systems,” (p. 28).

According to CT, an organizations have a predictability with general trends and patterns. They also have sensitive dependence on initial conditions, meaning something very minor can impact an organization in a major way. The changes are described as bifurcation, “the flashpoint of disruption and change at which a system’s direction, character, and/or structure is fundamentally altered,” (p. 30). Any organization can have bifurcation occur at any time.

Following bifurcation is self-organization. Basically, order is attempted to be brought back to the organzation.

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.

When handling a crisis, it is important to classify what kind of crisis it is. This can help you determine your course of action and manage the crisis.

Here are several different systems of classification from p. 47 of Communication and Organizational Crisis by Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer :

Meyers & Holusha, 1986

  • Public perception
  • Sudden market shift
  • Product failure
  • Top management succession
  • Cash crises
  • Industrial relations
  • Hostile takeover
  • Adverse international events
  • Regulation/deregulation

Coombs, 1999

  • Natural disasters
  • Malevolence
  • Technical breakdowns
  • Human breakdowns
  • Challenges
  • Megadamage
  • Organizational misdeeds
  • Workplace violence
  • Rumors

Miroff & Anagnos, 2001

  • Economic
  • Informational
  • Physical – Loss of key plants and facilities
  • Human resource
  • Reputation
  • Psychopathic acts
  • Natural disasters

Source:

Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and Organizational Crisis.